On the Likelihood of Tropical–Extratropical Cloud Bands in the South Indian Convergence Zone during ENSO Events

This study investigates how the seasonality in satellite-observed cloud band frequency emerges from the interplay between the asynchronous seasonal cycles in convective instability and upper-level flow, as represented by reanalysis data. These atmospheric mean states are diagnosed with a gross convective instability metric and a method to distinguish between subtropical and eddy-driven jet axes. Month-by-month analysis of these diagnostics elucidates how mean-state perturbations during ENSO events modify cloud band likelihood.